Saturday 28 December 2013

How to produce Shampoo for hair.

Research conducted shows that Shampoo can be define as a hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually build up in hair. The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much sebum as to make hair unmanageable.

According to wikin, The word shampoo in English dates to 1762, and is derived from Hindi which means to press,   Shampoo was first introduced in Britain by a Bengali entrepreneur from Bihar named Sake Dean Mahomed, he first familiarized the shampoo in Basil Cochrane's vapour baths while working there in the early 19th century. Later, Sake Dean Mahomed together with his Irish wife, opened "Mahomed's Steam and Vapour Sea Water Medicated Baths" in Brighton, England. His baths were like Turkish baths where clients received a treatment of champi (shampooing). Very soon due to Sake Dean Mahomed fame as a bathing expert he was appointed ‘Shampooing Surgeon’ to both George IV and William IV.
In the 1860s, the meaning of the word shifted from the sense of massage to that of applying soap to the hair.  Earlier, ordinary soap had been used for washing hair.  However, the dull film which soap left on the hair made it uncomfortable, irritating, and unhealthy looking.
During the early stages of shampoo, English hair stylists boiled shaved soap in water and added herbs to give the hair shine and fragrance. Kasey Hebert was the first known maker of shampoo, and the origin is currently attributed to him. Commercially made shampoo was available from the turn of the 20th century. A 1914 ad for Canthrox Shampoo in American Magazine showed young women at camp washing their hair with Canthrox in a lake; magazine ads in 1914 by Rexall featured Harmony Hair Beautifier and Shampoo.
Originally, soap and shampoo were very similar products; both containing the same naturally derived surfactants, a type of detergent. Modern shampoo as it is known today was first introduced in the 1930s with Drene, the first shampoo using synthetic surfactants instead of soap.


Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get into the eyes. For example, Johnson & Johnson's Baby Shampoo advertises under the premise of "No More Tears". This is accomplished by one or more of the following formulation strategies.
  1. dilution, in case product comes in contact with eyes after running off the top of the head with minimal further dilution
  2. adjusting pH to that of non-stress tears, approximately 7, which may be a higher pH than that of shampoos which are pH adjusted for skin or hair effects, and lower than that of shampoo made of soap
  3. use of surfactants which, alone or in combination, are less irritating than those used in other shampoos
  4. use of nonionic surfactants of the form of polyethoxylated synthetic glycolipids and/or polyethoxylated synthetic monoglycerides, which counteract the eye sting of other surfactants without producing the anesthetizing effect of alkyl polyethoxylates or alkylphenol polyethoxylates
The distinction in 4 above does not completely surmount the controversy over the use of shampoo ingredients to mitigate eye sting produced by other ingredients, or the use of the products so formulated.
The considerations in 3 and 4 frequently result in a much greater multiplicity of surfactants being used in individual baby shampoos than in other shampoos, and the detergency and/or foaming of such products may be compromised thereby. The monoanionic sulfonated surfactants and viscosity-increasing or foam stabilizing alkanolamides seen so frequently in other shampoos are much less common in the better baby shampoos.

A Word About Lather

Many shampoos contain agents to produce a lather, the bubbles don't aid the cleaning or conditioning power of the shampoo. Lathering soaps and shampoos were created because consumers enjoyed them, not because they improved the product. Similarly, getting hair "squeaky clean" actually isn't desirable. If your hair is clean enough to squeak, it has been stripped of its natural protective oils.

Shampoo Ingredients
  • ---- lb oz olive oil
  • ---- lb  of solid-type vegetable shortening
  • --- lb coconut oil
  • ---- oz lye (sodium hydroxide)
  • --- pints water
  • ---- oz glycerine (glycerol)
  • ---- alcohol (I'd use vodka or other food-quality ethanol and call it close enough. Do not use methanol.)
Let's Make Shampoo!
  1. In a large pan, mix together the olive oil, shortening, and coconut oil.
  2. In a well-ventilated area, preferably wearing gloves and eye protection in case of accidents, mix the lye and water. Use a glass or enameled container. This is an exothermic reaction, so heat will be produced.
  3. Warm the oils to 95°F-98°F and allow the lye solution to cool to the same temperature. One of the easiest ways to accomplish this is to set both containers into a large sink or pan full of water that is at the correct temperature.
  4. When both mixtures are at the proper temperature, stir the lye solution into the oils. The mixture will turn opaque and may darken.
  5. When the mixture has a creamy texture, stir in the glycerine, alcohol, castor oil, and any fragrance oils or colorants.
  6. You have a couple of options here. You can pour the shampoo into soap molds and allow it to harden. To use this shampoo, either lather it with your hands and work it into your hair or else shave flakes into hot water to liquefy it.
  7. The other option is to make liquid shampoo, which involves adding more water to your shampoo mixture and bottling it.
You may have noticed that many shampoos are pearlescent. You can make your homemade shampoo glittery by adding glycol distearate, which is a natural wax derived from stearic acid. The tiny wax particles reflect light, causing the effect.
You know shampoo cleans your hair, but do you know how it works? Here is a look at shampoo chemistry, including how shampoos works and why it's better to use shampoo than soap on your hair.

What Shampoo Does

Unless you've been rolling around in mud, you probably don't have hair that is truly dirty. However, it may feel greasy and look dull. Your skin produces sebum, a greasy substance, to coat and protect hair and the hair follicle. Sebum coats the cuticle or outer keratin coat of each hair strand, giving it a healthy shine. However, sebum also makes your hair look dirty. An accumulation of it causes hair strands to stick together, making your locks look dull and greasy. Dust, pollen, and other particles are attracted to the sebum and stick to it. Sebum is hydrophobic. It waterproofs your skin and hair. You can rinse away salt and skin flakes, but oils and sebum are untouched by water, no matter how much you use.

How Shampoo Works

Shampoo contains detergent, much like you would find in dishwashing or laundry detergent or bath gel. Detergents work as surfactants. They lower the surface tension of water, making it less likely to stick to itself and able to bind with oils and soiling particles. Part of a detergent molecule is hydrophobic. This hydrocarbon portion of the molecule binds to the sebum coating hair, as well as to any oily styling products. Detergent molecules also have a hydrophilic portion, so when you rinse your hair, the detergent is swept away by the water, carrying sebum away with it.

Other Ingredients in Shampoo

  • Conditioning Agents
    Detergents strip away the sebum from your hair, leaving the cuticle exposed and susceptible to damage. If you use soap or dishwashing detergent on your hair, it will get clean, but it may look limp, lacking body and shine. Shampoo contains ingredients that replace the protective coating on hair. Silicones detangle hair, smooth the hair cuticle, and add shine. Fatty alcohols help prevent static and fly-away or frizzy hair.
Shampoo typically is more acidic than soap, so it may contain ingredients to bring down the product of the pH. If the pH of shampoo is too high, the sulfide bridges in keratin can break, weakening or damaging your hair.
  • Protectants
    Many shampoos contain additional ingredients intended to protect hair. The most common additive is sunscreen. Other chemicals protect against heat damage from hair dryers or styling aids, chemical damage from swimming pools, or build-up from styling products.
  • Cosmetic Ingredients
    Shampoos contain aesthetic ingredients that don't affect how well the shampoo cleans your hair, but may make shampooing more pleasant or affect the color or fragrance of your hair. These additives include pearlising ingredients, which add sparkle to the product and may leave a faint glimmer on hair, perfume to scent the shampoo and hair, and colorants. Most colorants wash out with shampoo, although some subtly tint or brighten hair.
  • Functional Ingredients
    Some ingredients are added to shampoo to keep it uniformly mixed, thicken it so that it is easier to apply, prevent the growth of bacteria and mold, and preserve it to extend its shelf life.
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