Wednesday 27 November 2013

How to construct Inverter and Solar Panel

Vester Royal Business Magnet Company as you may wish to know  is one of the leading business solution provider of solar electrification systems in most African countries including Nigeria. Our goal is to maximize the utilization of solar solutions in meeting the illumination needs of the countries whether on the public roads or in the private establishments, be it in cities or in villages, in factories or in your private  homes. A solar inverter, or Photovoltaic inverter, converts the variable direct current (D/C) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (A/C) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary commercial appliances. Solar inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection.

 Relationship with our clients in any field of business starts with a site survey by one or two of our Specialists/Consultants in such field, as we are made up of a group of intellectuals from different fields . He or she will work with you to determine your requirements, and will proffer a solution that will address your needs and fits within your budget. Our specialist team will then work with you, all the way from the planning through to the execution stages. Now that it is  clear that we are made up of group or team of expert, why not you inform us about your projects so that, experts from our Company will assist you from the planning stage through execution.

Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types:
  • Kick-out inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its D/C energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays. Many out or stand alone/Kick-out inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, are not required to have anti-islanding protection.

  • Grid-tie inverters, which match phase with a utility-supplied sine wave. Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages.
  • Battery backup inverters are special inverters which are designed to draw energy from a battery (DC), manage the battery charge via an onboard charger, and export excess energy to the utility grid. These inverters are capable of supplying AC energy to selected loads during a utility outage, and are required to have anti-islanding protection.
Solar inverters use maximum power point tracking (MPPT) to get the maximum possible power from the photovoltaic array.  Solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve. It is the purpose of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system to sample the output of the cells and determine a resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions.
The fill factor (FF), is a parameter which, in conjunction with the open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the panel, determines the maximum power from a solar cell. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Voc and Isc.
There are three main types of maximum power point tracking algorithms: perturb-and-observe, incremental conductance and constant voltage. The first two methods are often referred to as hill climbing methods; they rely on the curve of power plotted against voltage rising to the left of the maximum power point, and falling on the right.

Anti-islanding protection

In the event of a power failure on the grid, it is generally required that any grid-tie inverters attached to the grid turn off in a short period of time. This prevents the inverters from continuing to feed power into small sections of the grid, known as "islands". Powered islands present a risk to workers who may expect the area to be unpowered, but equally important is the issue that without a grid signal to synchronize to, the power output of the inverters may drift from the tolerances required by customer equipment connected within the island.
Detecting the presence or lack of a grid source would appear to be simple, and in the case of a single inverter in any given possible physical island (between disconnects on the distribution lines for instance) the chance that an inverter would fail to notice the loss of the grid is effectively zero. However, if there are two inverters in a given island, things become considerably more complex. It is possible that the signal from one can be interpreted as a grid feed from the other, and vice versa, so both units continue operation. As they track each other's output, the two can drift away from the limits imposed by the grid connections, say in voltage or frequency.
There are a wide variety of methodologies used to detect an islanding condition. None of these are considered fool-proof, and utility companies continue to impose limits on the number and total power of solar power systems connected in any given area. However, many in-field tests have failed to uncover any real-world islanding issues, and the issue remains contentious within the industry.
Since 1999, the standard for anti-islanding protection in the United States has been UL 1741, harmonized with IEEE 1547. Any inverter which is listed to the UL 1741 standard may be connected to a utility grid without the need for additional anti-islanding equipment, anywhere in the United States or other countries where UL standards are accepted.
Similar acceptance of the IEEE 1547 in Europe is also taking place, as most electrical utilities will be providing or requiring units with this capability.

Solar micro-inverters

A solar micro-inverter in the process of being installed. The ground wire is attached to the lug and the panel's DC connections are attached to the cables on the lower right. The AC parallel trunk cable runs at  

Solar micro-inverter is an inverter integrated to each solar panel module. The inverter converts the output from each panel to alternating current They're designed to allow parallel connection of multiple units connected in parallel.
Each integrated module provides AC output and is connected together in parallel. This arrangement provides easier installation, redundancy and more effective capture of energy when they are partially shaded. As of 2010, they are mainly used for single phase applications and most units in production relied exclusively on electrolytic capacitors for buffering and there is a concern of long term reliability of these capacitors in each module. A 2011 study at Appalachian State University reports that individual integrated inverter setup yielded about 20% more power in unshaded conditions and 27% more power in shaded conditions compared to string connected setup using one inverter. Both setups used identical solar panels.

Grid tied solar inverters

Solar grid-tie inverters are designed to quickly disconnect from the grid if the utility grid goes down. This is an NEC requirement that ensures that in the event of a blackout, the grid tie inverter will shut down to prevent the energy it produces from harming any line workers who are sent to fix the power grid.
Grid-tie inverters that are available on the market today use a number of different technologies. The inverters may use the newer high-frequency transformers, conventional low-frequency transformers, or no transformer. Instead of converting direct current directly to 120 or 240 volts AC, high-frequency transformers employ a computerized multi-step process that involves converting the power to high-frequency AC and then back to DC and then to the final AC output voltage.
While there have historically concerns about having transformerless electrical systems feed into the public utility grid since the lack of galvanic isolation between the DC and AC circuits could allow the passage of dangerous DC faults to be transmitted to the AC side;  Since 2005, the NFPA's NEC allow transformerless (or non-galvanically) inverters. The VDE 0126-1-1 and IEC 6210 also have been amended to allow and define the safety mechanisms needed for such systems. Primarily, residual or ground current detection is used to detect possible fault conditions. Also isolation tests are performed to insure DC to AC separation.
Many solar inverters are designed to be connected to a utility grid, and will not operate when they do not detect the presence of the grid. They contain special circuitry to precisely match the voltage and frequency of the grid. See the Anti-Islanding section for more details.

Solar charge controller

A charge controller may be used to power DC equipment with solar panels. The charge controller provides a regulated DC output and stores excess energy in a battery as well as monitoring the battery voltage to prevent under/over charging. More expensive units will also perform maximum power point tracking. An inverter can be connected to the output of a charge controller to drive AC loads.
 Advanced solar pumping inverters convert D/C voltage from the solar array into A/C voltage to drive submersible pumps directly without the need for batteries or other energy storage devices. By utilizing maximum power point tracking (MPPT), solar pumping inverters regulate output frequency to control speed of the pumps in order to save pump motor from damage.

Materials needed for Inverter: Soda iron, Lead, IC, Wire, Coil, Aluminum conduct and box
How To Build a Solar Panel Step-by-Step
·         The most abundant source of fuel in our entire solar system is the sun. Knowing how to build a solar panel for your home or business will let you tap into a power supply which will, scientists predict, still be going strong 4 billion years from now. If that doesn't sound like a permanent solution to soaring energy bills and dwindling fossil fuel supplies, there isn't one!
·           panels doesn't face south (or north in the southern hemisphere), you can simply attach your solar panels to poles that have been installed in a location which does.
Learning how to build your own solar panel, as long as you have the basic carpentry             skills, is actually quite simple. Begin by gathering your tools and parts. If the parts    aren’t available at your home improvement store, you won't have any trouble finding
·           panels doesn't face south (or north in the southern hemisphere), you can simply attach your solar panels to poles that have been installed in a location which does.
Learning how to build your own solar panel, as long as you have the basic carpentry skills, is actually quite simple. Begin by gathering your tools and parts. If the parts aren’t available at your home improvement store, you won't have any trouble finding
  • Saw for cutting
  • plywood
  • Soldering iron gun
  • Paint brush
  • Rosin flux pen
  • Wire cutters
  • Screwdriver
  • Caulking gun
  • Volt meter
  • Plexiglass cutters
  • Plywood sheeting
  • Plexiglass
  • Tin wire
  • Solder
  • Silicon caulk
  • UV-ray protective varnish
  • Solar Cells (microcrystal cells cost around $2 a piec

When purchasing your solar cells, figure that 80 of them will normally produce 100 watts of electrical power. You’ll use your volt meter to test the solar cells individually, making a record of the voltage each produces. If you wanted to charge an 18 volt battery, for instance, you’d need a panel with 36 solar cells producing .5 volts each
Determine how much power you need from each of the solar panels you're going to build, and remember that you'll need more solar cells in areas which don't get a lot of direct sun. Then cut your plywood to the dimensions large enough to fit the number of solar cells which will be on each panel.
While the most common shape of solar panels for homes is rectangular, one of the advantages of deciding to build your own solar panel is that you can cut it in whatever shape you desire to fit where a rectangular panel won't go.
Once all your plywood has been cut, use your paintbrush to apply the UV-ray protective varnish. While you're waiting for the varnish to dry, start working on the solar cells.
Begin by using your Rosin flux pen to apply flux to the bus strips on your solar cells. This will ensure that when you solder your tab ribbons to your solar cells, they will adhere completely, and your wiring will be connected correctly. Then you’ll connect the solar cells to each other. Here’s a great video explaining the voltage testing, flux application and wiring processes you’ll do as you build your own solar panel:
When all the cells for you solar panel have been connected, using as little silicon as you can, affix them securely to your plywood panel. You’ll have two unattached wires hanging from the connected solar cells, requiring that you drill two holes in the plywood and feed the wires through them. Then seal any gaps around the holes with silicon.
Next you’ll make a “frame” for the panel, because you need to cover the solar cells with Plexiglas. Adhere the frame to the plywood with more silicon and wood screws, ensuring that it’s waterproof. Then secure the Plexiglas to the frame, first with silicon and then with screws. Be sure, however, to drill the screw holes into the Plexiglas before attaching it to the frame. Otherwise it could crack.
Inspect every inch of your solar panel for gaps which could allow moisture to penetrate it. If you find any, no matter how small, seal them with your silicon. Keep in mind, however, that even as tightly as you‘ve sealed it; moisture can still accumulate in the panel's interior. So the last thing you'll do is drill a small hole close to the bottom of the panel but away from all the wiring. This will allow air in to the panel to keep moisture from building up. By placing the hole at the bottom of the panel, you'll also keep rain from collecting inside!
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