Tuesday 6 August 2013


Learning Objectives;
By the end of this chapter, the reader should be able to;
·         Define fishery
·         Classify fishes on the basis of habitat and morphology
·         State the uses of fish and fish products.
·         Identify methods of fishing.
We have been exploring aspects of agricultural production on farm land. Perhaps we should also explore the aspect of agricultural production in farm water Aquaculture.
Aquaculture deals with the science and art of producing aquatic organisms (i.e. organisms that live in water) including plants and animals. However fishery is solely concerned with the cultivation and harvesting of aquatic food animals.
Fishery may be defined as an entity engaged in the breeding and or harvesting of fish. It is the aspect of agriculture that engages in raising and harvesting of water animals.
The term fishery will include all the activities involved in catching, raising, processing and marketing of fish and fish products. The term fish as used in this context of fisheries will refer to all useful aquatic animals to man and includes fin fishes (true fish), crustaceans, mollusks, and any other harvestable aquatic animals. A fishery may involve the capture of wild fishes, or the raising and harvesting of fishes through fish farming or aquaculture. In Nigeria, fishery is becoming increasingly important especially to people living around natural bodies of water such as rivers, streams, lakes and ponds. Important rivers in Nigeria include the River Niger and Benue systems, the Cross River systems and the neigbouring Lake Chad. Currently in Nigeria more farmers are beginning to discover the commercial value of fish and are venturing into fish farming.
Column 24.1
Terms associated with fishery
Aquaculture: the science and art of producing aquatic organisms.
Mariculture; cultivation or production of marine organisms.
Fish: refers to particular species of harvestable aquatic animals.
Fishes: refers to different species of fish
School: refers to different species of fish
School: refers to a group of fish
Fry: refers to young fish
Fingerlings: refers to newly hatched fish
Hatchery: a device where fish eggs are incubated and hatched
Fishing gears hackle: devices or tools used for harvesting fish
Fishing techniques: refer to various methods of utilizing fishing gears to various methods of utilizing fishing gears to catch fish
Fishes can be classified based on the following;
a.        Habitat: this classification is based on the type of water a fish can be found and includes
i.                    Fresh water fishes: these are fish that live naturally in fresh waters. Fresh water contains very little or no salt and is exemplified by rivers, streams, ponds, springs, swamps, lakes etc. examples of fresh water fish include, Tilapia, trout, carp, mud fish, cat fish, perch and pike.
ii.                  Salt-water fish: these are fish that live naturally in salt waters. Salt waters consist of considerably large amount of salt which gives it a salty taste. Salt water includes seas and oceans. Example of salt water fishes are sharks, mackerel, tuna, eel, ray, herring, skates, salmon and croaker.
b.      Morphology: Morphology refers to the type of body structure or skeletal structure of an organism. Based on morphology, fish can be classified into;
i.                    Bony fish: these are fishes that possess bony skeletons. Examples include tilapia, mud fish, cod, mackerel, herring, salmon, carp, trout, petch, bass etc.
ii.                  Cartilaginous fishes: these are fishes whole skeletons are made of cartilage. Examples include shark, dolphin, dog fish, rays, skates etc.
c.       Other types of aquatic organisms;
Other useful aquatic organisms can be grouped under this class as follows
i.                    Shell fish; eg. Crabs, Prawns, lobsters, cray fish etc.
ii.                  Reptile; e.g. turtle, crocodile, alligator etc.
iii.                Mammals; e.g hippopotamus, whales etc.
Uses of fish and fish products
i.                    Food: fish and their products serve as a very important source of animal protein. They are very nutritious and can be prepared as delicacies of various forms. They contain many essential nutrients including vitamins and minerals.
(See Column 24.2)
ii.                  Source of animal feed: fish by products can be processed into fish meals and can be used to supplement or supply animal feeds where they provide the protein requirements of the farm animal.
iii.                Source of income: fish and their products are important source of income since they generate money when sold. Fish farmers are therefore gainfully employed.
iv.                Medicine: fishes have medicinal value. Example cod liver oil which is a fish product, helps to maintain a healthy and functional heart. It also helps in the treatment of certain, heart and pulmonary diseases.
v.                  Raw materials for industries: Certain fish products such as skin from cartilaginous fish & and other aquatic organisms such as crocodile, make good rain materials for leather used in manufacturing leather clothings including belts, bags, shoes etc. also oysters contain pearls that can be used locally to produce beads and other forms of jewelries. Fish by-products can be used to produce fertilizers.
vi.                Sports/pleasure: Some people engage in fishing as a form of leisure activity or vacation exercise. Some people also raise fish (usually colourful small fishes) in aquariums for pleasure or aesthetics.

Column 24.2
Nutritional value of fish: fishes are an excellent source of animal protein. They contain little or no carbohydrates. There are nutrients in fish and other sea foods that rarely exist in other foods eg. Omega 3 fatty acids and vitamin E. all fish contains small amounts of vitamin B. They are also good sources of essential minerals such as magnesium, calcium, iodine and other important nutrients. Oily fish (e.g. salmon) provides vitamin A and D. White fish (e.g cod) is very good for low cholesterol diets. Shellfish (e.g. crab) are very nutritious and are rich in many essential minerals.
Fishes also have medicinal value.
Example cod liver oil helps to maintain a healthy and functional heart.
When fish are fresh or properly preserved, they are odourless and retain ther nutrients.
Methods of fishing
Fishing refers to the harvesting of fish. Fishes can be harvested in a fish farm, or in the open water such as rivers, streams, lakes seas and oceans. Harvesting of fish requires the use of fishing tools and application of fishing techniques to catch fish and bring it out of the water to dry land. Below are various methods of fishing.
i.                    Luring: This methods involves the use of baits (fish food e.g. worm) attached unto hooks to lure fishes. The hooks are inturn attached to strings which is held by the fisherman. When a fish takes the bait, the hook pierces it and the fisherman pulls the string together with the fish out of the water.
ii.                  Impaling or striking: This method involves the use of fishing tools such as spears and harpoons to strike a moving fish. This injures or impales the fish movement resulting to its subsequent catch and removal from water (landing).
iii.                Entrapment or snaring: this method involves the use of fishing traps or baskets to entrap fishes, after which they are brought to dry land.
iv.                Scooping: This involves the use of certain fishing nets such as hand or scoop nets, cast nets etc to catch fish by dipping them into the water and quickly removing it when fish enters inside it (usually detected by movement or weight of fish).
v.                  Encircling: This method involves the use of large fishing nets or other fishing gears and making a circular movement around a region until the fish in the region is trapped in the fishing gear which is then hauled into the fishing boat and brought to land. In the case where boat is not used, two or more individuals can hold the fishing net and move around a region of dense fish concentration. (See other methods of fishing in chapter 9 under fishing tools).
Activity 24.1: Activity on fishing.
Activity; The students should visit a nearby fish farm.
They should observe the following
·         How fish are reared.
·         Feeding of fish
·         Various types of fish
·         Various forms of fish products
·         Methods used in harvesting fish
·         The students should record their observations.

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1 comment:

  1. Compliments,

    Please how do i start croaker fish farming?