Tuesday 6 August 2013


For one to be successful in what he/she is doing there must be projected aims and objective which
must be directed towards success. Our aim is to be self reliant and to become employer of labour. All our efforts must be directed towards these directions.

When we say importance of poultry keeping we mean what we gain from keeping poultry and those things we gain includes. Eggs, yolk in egg. Meat feather meal, money and being engaged to meaningful employment. What do we do with? Eggs and other things mentioned above? We do that in order to get money for our welfare. We sell and even make use of them by ourselves.

We must be careful while selecting eggs for hatchery, because not all eggs laid by the hen are good for hatchery. Eggs under these categories are not good for hatchery. (1) Small eggs, larger eggs, cracked eggs, you have to select the eggs according to sets e.g. small eggs, middle size eggs, and large eggs. Cracked eggs, Misshaped and dirty eggs are good for hatching. Small eggs and very large ones do not hatch then same time with the middle sized eggs. Large eggs needs about 60 hours to be hatched after the small while small ones will hatch before the middle size and large size. Based on this we must do not selection our egg according sizes before putting them into incubator for hatchery.

Store your eggs in a room of 65 – 70 and RH of 75%. Egg must be brought into setting room for them to reach the required temperature in order to prevent sweating before they are set. Egg must not be kept for a long period before setting do not keep eggs for more than ten days before setting.

Incubation can take place artificial or naturally the indigenous method of hatchery is regarded or known as natural hatchery. In this method, the hen will sit on the clutch of the eggs in order to generate the warmth that incubates and hatches the eggs.
(a) Advantages of this methods includes, poor hatchery (b) Insecurity of the eggs. (c) Attack by            the hen to family members of the famer.

Is the method whereby the eggs are hatched without the hen sitting on the cultch of the eggs. The introduction of incubator and sophisticated controls to maintain the temperate, and air supply in the base for this method.

This method is safer and produces or incubates more eggs than the former.

The incubation period is the same twenty one days with that of natural incubation. The disadvantage associated to this method includes, (a) Lack of practice for the less privileged ones to hatch. (b) It is expensive to summing maintain.


    (a) Supply of sufficient oxygen to enable the embryo grow well.

    (b) Prompt evacuation of carbon dioxide resulting from


1. Quality of the chicks: No amount of care can convert a potentially poor chick into a good one. The chick should therefore be of sound constitution and from disease free parents.

2. Temperature: the young chick must be exposed to a relatively high temperature to assist its development since the body temperature of the chicks is lower than that of the adult. The supplemental heat thus enables the chick to attain adult body temperature without much stress and mortality.

3. Relative humidity: The importance of RH in this regard is through its interaction with temperature. When humidity is too low, the chicks may get dehydrated, and if too high, the growth of pathogens may be stimulated. Optimum RH is 50 – 70%.

4. Ventilation: This is necessary in order to meet the respiratory needs of the chick, to supply O2 to remove CO2, NH3 and moisture and heat.

5. Feed and Water: Brooding cannot be successful unless light also enable them to see the feed, and assists growth. The light should not be too bright and should preferably be continuous.

6. Light: Prolonged darkness may injure the eyes of the chicks. Light also enables them to see the feed, and assists growth, The light should not be too bright and should preferably be continuous.

Brooder: One item of equipment peculiar to the management of chicks is the brooder. The brooder is placed in the brooder house to supply heat to the chicks. Today potable brooders are made in a number of different styles and sizes to suit different categories of farmers. The most popular type is the floor brooder with the hover providing the heat. This heat is reflected from the canopy of the hover to the back of the chicks.

 Guard or Surround: In floor brooding, chicks should be restricted using guards to within a short distance of the hover until they are fairly well feathered and can locate the source of heat. The guards may also prevent floor draught to which the chicks are susceptible. They may be made of galvanized iron, cardboard or any wall board. In warm weather, wire may be used for guard. Other types of brooders include:

3. Infra-red ray brooder: This type operates on electricity and emit infrared rays which penetrate the skin of the chicks and produce heat inside the body.

4. Batheny brooder: This is in the form of series of drawers maintained at different temperatures, it may be heated with electricity or hot water and provides heat uniformly in each compartment, although it is from litter, and ensures close observation of the chicks it encourages overcrowding and hence cannibalism.


1. Ensure that the brooder house clean and disinfected.

2. Leave the house for at least 2 weeks to ensure that any surviving disease organism are dead.

3. Spread the litter 2 days before arrival of the chicks, and begin to operate the brooders.

4. Just before the arrival of the chicks, provide feed and water.

5. On arrival. Inspect birds for defects, and place them under the brooders.

6. Restrict the extraction of the brooder house for one to 4 weeks depending on how cold the environment is.

7. Drinkers are washed daily.


1. Debeaking: This is the process of partially removing the beak to prevent some bad habits e.g pecking, feather pulling, cannibalism and egg eating. Although this tendency may be inherited, it is generally a manifestation of some management defects e.g. inadequate feeding, and drinking. Debeaking requires extreme care to avoid serious damages, to the bird, and should be performed in the mornings in hot weather to minimize bleeding. A higher level of Vit. K may be fed during debeaking to accelerate healing.

2. Dubbing: This is the process of removing the comb. This dubbing protects the birds from fungus infection which attacks the combs. It is not a very common practice any way.

3. Despurring: This is the removal of the spur (an extra digit of the nail) which is often well developed and which sometimes injures the back of the breeding hen during mating, thus scaring hens from mating.

4. Deworming: It is recommended to deworm the chicks before they are moved to grower pen, or if there is any evidence of worm infestation.


(a) Intra ocular Vaccination against Vew castle disease (NCD) at one day old.

(b) The‘strick’ method of vaccination against fowl pox. This involves stabbing the wing-web with the vaccine at 2 weeks.

(c) At six week, intramuscular injection (immunization) against fowl typhoid and against NCD.


Generally, there are 2 main management systems, the extensive and the intensive systems, + the semi-intensive. Unlike the extensive system which permits the fullest exposure to pasture and sunlight, the intensive system practically excludes or minimizes this exposure. There are also different management systems.

Mgt. System housing

1. Extensive system (2) range system (2)

Fold Unit or folding unit

2. Intensive system (i) Deep Litter system

System (ii) Wi------ tted floor

(ii) Straw yard system

(iv) Cage of battery system battery cage system

3. Semi-intensive system (i) Typical semi-intensive unit

(ii) Straw yard.


Under this system, the birds are exposed to sun, and pasture for grazing with shelter provided for sleeping at night and for protection against inclement weather.

One characteristic of this system is the constant movements of birds to new grazing areas for food and away from pathogens from larger accumulation of their droppings.

It is very uneconomical in terms of land and labour requirements and is therefore no longer common. Also because of the exposure of the birds to extremes of weather the birds under this system do not perform very well, it also exposes the birds to economic losses resulting from predators, thieves and laying of eggs in the bushes.


This system combines the advantages and disadvantages of both the intensive and the extensive system. One basic characteristic of this system is the apparent restriction of the birds in the fixed building with runs provided for grazing. Often more than one run is provided to permit rotational grazing.

It is no longer common.


This is the current practice in poultry operations. It is poultry in confinement. This system prevents access to pasture (unless it is brought to the birds), and sunshine except that allowed in through the design of the birds for Vit. B. Because of the confinement of the bird, the need for highly balanced diets is imperative if optimal performance of the birds is expected. The apparent disadvantages however include the increased chance of disease spread due to the physical contact of the birds, and the increased incidence of such social vice habits as cannibalism, tail pulling, pecking etc.

The building in this system are fixed and the birds are confined within, a condition that improves the supervision of the birds, protects the birds from physical hazards and predators, and permits the most efficient utilization of labour. The intensive system is also most desirable where land is in short supply eg. In cities since a small land area can house a complex poultry project. In addition, the environment inside the poultry house is more congenial for work. All these factors result in the higher efficiency of production under the intensive system.

Under this system, there are different housing system, including;

(1) The deep litter

(2) The wire or slatted floor

(3) The straw yard


This consists of a fixed building having suitable litter spread on the floor not only to absort moisture from the drinker, but also to protect the new chick from being chilled from the cold floors. The litter also makes cleaning the floor of droopings easy.

The deep litter house is variable in size but one with a capacity of more than 2000 birds is more economical. Smaller or larger sized houses are also available.

The floor of the deep litter house should be cemented and strong to prevent entry of rats and mice. A cemented floor also improve the efficiency of washing the floor clean of old litter materials.

The floor of the deep litter house should be cemented and strong to prevent entry of rats and mice. A cemented floor also improve the efficiency of washing the floor clean of old litter materials.

The floor should then be covered with suitable litter, which may be wood shaving, crushed cobs of maize or peanut shells. Dry sawdust is not suitable since it may easily block the nostrils of the birds when they peck the litter, or it may irritate the nasal passage and throat, predisposing the birds to respiratory infections.

Advantages of the deep litter system

1) The litter converts poultry droppings into a drier materials which is easier to clean and remove

2) The litter helps in the control of disease through the reduction of the concentration of pathogens.

3) The litter also buffers temperature rise, thus helping to prevent spread. Higher temps. Increase chance of disease spread.

4) The action of micro-organism on litter and on dropping produces animal protein factor (APF) which includes Vit. B12 which is essential for the development of chick embryos and thus for hatchability of eggs.

5) Since the litter absorbs the droppings, it indirectly helps the cleaning of the floors.


Under this system, wire mesh instead of litter is used to cover the floor. The cost of the wire mesh higher than that of the litter, but the problem of litter management are avoided. Droppings fall under the wire mesh, reducing disease incidences. This system is however not popular either because of the cost of the wire, or because of egg breakages and or breast blisters of bird which are associated with this system.

Straw Yard System. The walls of this system are made of straw while it may allow in more sunlight, there is an increased chance of fire outbreaks.

The cage system (Battery Cage System)

In this system, the birds are housed in individual metal compartments (cages) either singly, or in twos. Each compartment is usually a living and laying nest, well ventilated, and made of galvanized iron. The construction include a sloping floor, feed and water troughs. The sloping floor extends forwards and folds gently to form the cradle from which the eggs are collected.

The cage unit compartments are arranged in rows which share side walls, and the rows are arranged in tiers. Running in front of each row of compartment are trough for feed and water troughs. Depending on the arrangement of the cage, especially in the step-stair cage design, the rows of the ties face opposite directions and the droppings of the birds fall directly of the ties face opposite directions and the droppings of the birds fall directly on the floor (no dropping –boards).

Cage operations may vary from complete manual operation to semiautomatic and to fully automatic operations, including manure removal.


1. The birds are free from some of the problems associated with mutual contacts or social friction resulting in vice habits and shess e.g. Pecking.

2. Because of the absence of contact between the birds and their droppings, disease spread is minimized

3. Feed and water intake may be recorded. Egg sucking is avoided, and birds may be identifiable for production records.


     (i) Egg breaking

    (ii) Overhead cost which is high


The adult bird includes the layers (commercial or breeder), the broiler and the mature cocks.


Pullets are reared under a variety of condition of housing and management

Today, pullets are reared almost exclusively in confinement, either on litter wire floors or in cages. The cages are partially more effective in terms of increasing the concentration of birds and reducting labour costs associated with pullet rearing.

It is necessary to note the several principles that will result in producing good layers.

a) During the growth period of the layers (pullets) it is necessary to meet the nutritional requirements in terms of energy and all other nutrients. Generally however, it has been shown that restricting the feed intake of this class of poultry will not only result in the production of layers that are leaner and which have the potential for none egg production. It also cuts down in feed cost.

b) The pullets should have received all their vaccines against New castle disease, fowl typhoid and fowl pox.

c) The birds should be dewormed before laying start. This has been shown to increase egg production.

d) The age of sexual maturity may be controlled either by feed restriction or through control of photoperiod. The alteration of lighting schedule has been shown to be more effective in preventing precocious sexual maturity. The basis of this principle is that constant or decreasing day length tends to delay sexual maturity.

Identifying good layers.

1. Large and bright comb (due to hormone action)

2. Enlarged and moist vent

3. Loose abdominal skin (non layers have tough & stiff skin)

4. Pliable pelvic hone, enough to allow 2 – 3 fingers

5. Short stumpy and strong beak.


Chickens used for the production of meat have the inherited ability to grow rapidly and reach market weight quickly. This faster growth necessitates higher nutritional floor space and ventilation requirements.

Usually males grow faster than females and so for the sake of uniformity in growth, the different sexes are housed separately. To achieve this faster growth of broilers, adequate feed and water are very essential. Broiler starter diet is fed from day 1 to 6 weeks, then the finisher diet from this period to market. The change to the next diet should be gradual and is best achieved by mixing the old diet with an increasing proportion of new diet until the switch is complete.


   1. Roasters: These may be produced with male and female birds

   2. Poussins: These are the male by – products of hatcheries which are raised as an alternative to killing them

   3. Capons: The capon is a fowl which has been surgically or chemically.

Treated so as to remove the action of the male hormone, or increase the action of the female hormones. The tests are either surgically removed, or they are given estrogenic preparation (hormones). However, only males are caponized. The objectives of caponization include

         (i) To increase the growth rate of the birds

         (ii) To tenderize their meat.


Besides the genetics of any animals, is the next factor necessary for maximal productivity. It is a known fact that the potential of a bird cannot be attained if the nutrition is substandard.

Chickens like other higher animals have complex nutrient needs, requiring more than 40 specific chemical compounds or chemical elements to be present in the diet to support life, growth and reproduction. These nutrient can be divided into six classes, according to their function and chemical nature.

      1. Carbohydrates

      2. Fats

      3. Proteins

      4. Vitamins

      5. Minerals

      6. Water.

Water: Water makes up form 55 to 70% of the body of chickens, depending on maturity. Water from the internal medium in which transport of nutrients occurs, metabolic reactions take place, from which wastes are eliminated and also is necessary for temperature maintenance. The water should be at the right temperature, free from excessive salt and free from droppings and litter material. It is very essential for life.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are the simple or complex sugars that are required for energy, for body heat maintenance and for the synthesis of fat stored in the body as a structural component and in the egg. A deficiency of carbohydrates in the diet result in poor growth rate of the chicks. The carbohydrates useful to poultry are hexoses, sucrose, maltose & starch. Cellulose, a complex carbohydrate is not digested by poultry

Fats: Fats are important for increasing the energy density of rations especially those of broiler chicks and layers since they contain 2.2x the energy content of carbohydrates. Fats are not only stored in the body and in eggs, they also form a medium for fat soluble vitamins A & D. They are the most concentrated source of energy in poultry feeding. A deficiency of fats also results in poor growth and reduced resistance to respiratory diseases.

Proteins: CHONS. They are made up of more than 20 individual amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. Since an average protein contain 16% Nitrogen, the protein content of any feed or carcass may be estimated by multiplying the N2content by 6.25. protein determined by this method is called crude protein.

The tissues of the poultry may secrete some of these amino acids, but cannot secrete others. The amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the bird are called the essential amino acids while the non essential amino acids, are those which the birds can secrete

Essential, Arginine, Cystine, Histidine, Iso – leucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine,  Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine, Non essential, Alanine, Aspartate, Glycine, Hydroxy proline, Proline, Serine, Minerals

Minerals are required for skeletal tissue development and maintenance, as well as in physiological function. They are also components of the egg. The major minerals include Ca, P, Mg & CI. While the trace elements needed by the fowl are Fe, mn, Cu, & Co, layers need more Ca for egg shell formation. Dietary salt deficiency reduces egg production and predisposes the birds to cannibalism.

Vitamins: These are organic compounds not usually synthesized by the body but which are very necessary and required in small quantities. Vitamins generally function as coenzymes or regulators of metabolism.

The 13 vitamins required by poultry are classified either as fat soluble or water soluble vitamins.

The fat soluble vitamins include A, D, E, K, while the water soluble vitamins include Thiamine, riboflavin Nicotinic acid, folacin, biotin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, vitamine B12 and choline. Poultry do not need vitamin c in their diet because their body tissues can synthesize it. For efficient growth and reproduction, vitamins must be provided in the proper amount. The egg normally contain sufficient vitamin to supply the needs of the developing embryo, which is why eggs are one of the best animal sources of vitamins for humans. Vitamin A (Retinol) carotene precursor for the synthesis of the epithelial tissues of the body.

- For improved vision (protection from night blindness)

Deficiency – muscular in coordination.

Poor egg laying and hatchability
Source – Green forage, yellow corn, fishliver oils.
Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) – for absorption & deposition of ca.
Deficiency - rickets - chicks
- thin shelled eggs
Source - sunlight (UV light or even fluorescent light)
Vit. E (Tocopherol) – Need for efficient reproductive activities.
Deficiency - crazy chick disease –encephalomalacia muscular dystrophy
Poor hatchability of fertile eggs.
Source - vegetable oil, synthesiszed chemically, whole grain
B – Vitamins – necessary for general metabolic efficiencies improved
Growth and good skin condition
Best source: - grains
- green forages
- fermentation by products (Brewer’s yeast).

 Marketing of poultry & poultry products
The marketing of poultry and poultry products generally involves buying and the physical movement and distribution of both the poultry meat and eggs between the point of production and the point of consumption. To be effective, marketing must be concerned with those phases of production which influence the quality of the products, as well as with the preferences of consumers for certain characteristics of the retail products and for the type of package in which it is offered for sale. The ultimate objective of the marketing process is to put the poultry or their products in the hands of consumers with their original quality unimpaired. Egg marketing does however present some special difficulties for the small produce, one of the major causes of egg spoilage being the development of embryo in the egg with long period of storage, during the hot periods. Generally, the factors that influence the effectiveness of marketing of poultry product can be grouped into two.

Example: Some consumers for example actually prefer eggs with medium or thin white over those with firm thick white. The color of the egg shell or meat also influences choice some preferring brown eggs. Also with eggs, many consumers prefer large size eggs to small sized eggs. Eggs with rough, thin or uneven shells are always discriminated against. Stained or dirty eggs are unattractive in appearance and are also discriminated against since they will spoil more quickly than clean eggs.

In considering the preference of consumers for poultry meat, it is seen that many consumers prefer poultry meat that is properly bled, properly pinned (developing feathers removed), and adequately scalded. Underscalded or over scaled poultry produce meat of uneven coloration, with some flesh.

Quail Birds farming is the latest poultry business in town. They consume the same feed with poultry birds but do not require the services of Vet Doctors. Quail is effective in treating Asthma; TB; High and Low blood pressure; Low libido etc. At L. A. Comm. Enterprises we sell Quail birds and eggs in large quantity. Contact us: No. 6 Vester Royal Road, Uli - Anambra. Phone: 08036721009, 08076075205, 07088788710. Email:


For questioning contact us at: 08036721009, 08076075205, 07088788710 or e-mail us: We are here to serve you better

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