Thursday 12 June 2014

How to write a Business Plan

The general purpose of any proposal is to persuade the readers to do something whether it is to persuade a potential customer to purchase goods and/ or service, or to persuade your employer to fund a project or to implement a programme that you would like to launch.
Any proposal offers a plan to fill a need, and you reader will evaluate your plan according to how well your written presentation answers questions about WHAT you are planning to do with it, and How much it is going to cost. To do this, you must find out the level of knowledge that your audience possesses and take the position of all yours into account. You must also discern whether your readers will be members of your technical discourse community, or of both, and then use the appropriate materials and language to appeal to both. You might provide, for those outside your specific area of expertise, an executive summary written in no technical language use in the body of the proposal and or attach appendices that explain technical information in generally understood language.
          The best basic component of a proposal, as with any other written document is simple. It needs a beginning (the introduction), a middle (the body of material to be presented) and an end (the conclusion recommendation).
A proposal is a designed work plan mapped out approval and implementation. A proposal is a systematic articulation of materials, finance and labour needed for the actualization of a given task, project and target business venture or progrmme.
We have the following forms of proposal. They are:
1.   Research proposal
2.   Project proposal
3.   Business proposal
4.   Administrative proposal
5.   Budget proposal
1.   Research Proposal: This proposal is mainly used when carrying out researches. Researches of those kind concern project writing at institutions of higher learning (writing long essays); writing this is for master’s degree, writing dissertations for doctorate degree candidates; publication works (articles) for workshops, seminars, conferences and other task involving academic researches. It is from this proposal that the researcher uses to facilitate the proper project writing tasks. It is just like the skeletal structures of the project (or thesis and dissertations) having in stock all those important parts of the research. 
2.   Project Proposal: This proposal is the one that carries, at a glance, all that basically concerns the project in question. This involves, introduction description, processes involved, quality control, financial involvement, manpower, materials, machines, natural and other important resources involved. The proposal must spell out and explicate what the project will take, how it will be, how it will be carried out to suit the taste of the authorities concerned, etc.
3.   Business Proposal: Business proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. It also means the proposal of a particular line of business to be put in place. Bringing new line of business into existence and operation requires a proposal to that effect before causing it into existence (establishing it).
4.   Administrative Proposal: An administrative proposal is a proposal made in order to execute or implement assigned policies and programmes of the institution, organization/establishment or public service. This can be called for by the authorities in charge to the members of the public and those of the consultants and expertrates. This occurs through calling or giving invitation for bidding. Through this, government programmes and projects are successfully contracted to companies that meet up with the demands of the board or bureau like the public procurement, tenders board, etc. 
5.   Budget proposal: The budget proposal is the proposal that contains and stipulates the articulated project, programmes, plans, works and financial responsibilities of the state, country local authorities and the establishment. Budget proposal itemizes and show cases as the blueprint of projects and programmes, policies and functions, works and polices of a given geographical setting. Budget proposal presents, for sample purposes, what is needed and how to go about it.
Technically, budget proposal is a request presented by the executive to the legislature or legislating executive council for spending in a given budgeting year. 
The introduction presents and summarizes the problem you intend to solve and your solution to that problem, including the benefits the audience will receive from the solution and the cost of that solution. 
The body of the proposal should explain the complete details of the solution: how the job will be done, broken into separate tasks; what method will be used to do it including the equipment, materials, and personnel that would be required, when the work will begin, and when the job will be completed. It should also present a detailed cost breakdown for the entire job.
The conclusion should emphasize the benefits that the reader will realize from your solution to the problem and should urge the reader into action. It should be encouraging, confident and assertive in tone.
          Proposals are informative and persuasive writing because they attempt to educate the reader and to convince that reader to do something. The goal of the writer is not only to persuade the reader to do what is being requested, but also to make the reader believe that the solution is practical and appropriate. In persuasive proposal writing, the case is built by the demonstration of logic in the approach taken in the solution. Facts must lead logically and invariably to the conclusion and solution presented. Evidence should be given in descending order of importance beginning with the most important evidence leading and the least important at the end. Any question that the reader might pose should be anticipatedly answered in a way that it reflects the position of your proposal. It is important that the writer also, considers all sides of argument proving other alternative solution to the problem, but showing how the one chosen is superior to the others.
          There are several formats to a proposal, but the one that has the greatest flexibility and has achieved the widest acceptance is as follows:
              ·            Letter of transmittal
              ·            The page
              ·            Project summary (approximately, 200 word abstract)
v Project proposal (includes statement of the problem, proposal solution(s) programme of implementation, conclusion/recommendations) conclusion/Recommendations
Back matter
Bibliography and/or works cited
Qualifications (of writer(s) and or project implementations)
v (Itemizing of expenses in the implementation and operation of the proposal plan, and detail of materials, facilities, equipment and personnel). Appendices 
v What is the subject of the proposal? (This should base on the thesis of your proposal)
v For whom is this proposal intended?
v How do you intend the proposal to be used?
What is the deadline (date) for the proposal and for tentative implementation of the proposed solution?
Additional information to be used in
Explication of the proposed solutions
(This includes costs, personnel and their qualifications, Training, etc)
§  Types and subject matter of appendices to be included in the proposal
§  Works cited/References used in the text of the proposal.
§  Bibliography of related source information.
Abstract or summary of the proposal:
(This is a condensed version of the longer work, and it summarizes and highlights the major points it includes, the subject, scope purpose, methods, and obtained results of the study, as well as any recommendation and conclusions made).
(This gives the background and states the purpose of the proposal).
Additional information
(To include expense statements, cost savings, profit and Loss projections, Equipment, materials and personnel needs, completion schedules, efficiency studies, writer’s qualifications, etc)
(Presentation of charts, graphs, illustrations, etc).
Works cited/References
Types of proposal 
1.   PRELIMINARY PROPOSAL OR WHITE PAPER: This type of proposal is requested when a sponsor wishes to minimize an applicant’s effort in preparing a full proposal. They are usually in the form of a letter of intent or a brief abstract of what the P1 plans to do, how the P1 will conduct the project and why this project has merits A preliminary or pre-proposal establishes a foundation for discussion. It does not commit the P1 the authority concerned. Since these proposals often do become the basis for negotiation for funding. If a budget is included in the submission, proposal service will route it for the appropriate university signatures. When requested by the sponsor, the proposal may be used to determine how well the project fits the agency’s priorities. Also, the preliminary proposal may determine selection for the next stage of the application, help in the selection of possible reviewers and possibly offers a chance for feedback to the P1. After the proposal is reviewed, the sponsor notifies the investigator if a full proposal is warranted.
2.   FORMAL PROPOSAL: Although the prescribed format of any of these proposals will vary, all should be prepared in the same general manner. A formal proposal normally fits into one of the following categories.
i.             Unsolicited proposal: This proposal is submitted to a sponsor that generally has not issued a specific solicitation but is believed by the investigator to have an interest in the subject. The unsolicited proposal is developed around general agency guidelines within a specific subject field, where the scope of the project is not limited by specific solicitation guidelines unsolicited proposal may be submitted any time, although, there may be target submission dates set to meet particular review panel meetings.
ii.            Solicited proposal: (response to a specific programme) This category can include Broad Agency Announcements (BAA) Requests for proposal (RFO) and Request for Quotation (RFQ). A proposal submitted to a specific programme should conform to the solicitation guidelines issued by the agency. Proposals submitted in response to a BAA are usually accepted at anytime during a specified time frame, which may be as long as 2 to 3 years. To respond to an RFP or RFQ, the proposed project would have to fit the needs described in the specific work statement developed by the funding agency. A RFP or RFQ is usually specific in its requirements regarding format and technical content and may stipulate certain award terms and conditions. They usually have a “hart” deadline. If the proposal arrives late, it normally will not be considered. Also most are one time solicitations to fit a specific need that is not experienced enough.
This is a request for financial assistance for a second or subsequent budget period within a previously approved project period. This type of proposal confirms the original proposal and funding requirements of the multi-year project. Continued support is usually contingent on satisfactory work progress as verified in a required report, and the availability and funds.
4.   Renewal of competing proposals
These types of proposals are request for continued support for an existing project that is about to terminate, and form the sponsor is viewpoints generally have the same status as an unsolicited proposal. Competing continuation proposals compete with other competing supplemental and new proposals for funds.
5.   Supplemental proposal” A supplemental proposal is a request for an increase in support during a current budget period for expansion of the projects scope or research protocol or to meet increased administrative costs unforeseen at the time of the new non-competing continuation, or computing continuation application. 
The following are components of a proposal in descending order:

Executive            Summary

Statement of Need

The project Description

The                      Budget
Organizational information

Letter                   proposal


Business proposal is a written offer from a seller to a prospective buyer. Business proposals are often a key step in the complex sales process that is whenever a buyer considers more than price in a purchase.
          A proposal puts the buyer’s requirements in a context that favours the seller’s products and services, and educates the buyer about the capabilities of the seller in satisfying their needs. A successful proposal results in a sale, where both parties get what they want a win-win situation.

There are three types of proposal. They are:
1.   Formally solicited proposal
2.   Informally solicited proposal
3.   Unsolicited proposal
1.   Formally Solicited Proposal: Solicited proposals are written in response to published requirements contained in a request for proposal. Request for proposal provides detailed specifications of what the customer wants to buy and sometimes include directions for preparing the proposal as well as evaluation criteria the customer will use to evaluate offers. Customers issue RFPs when their needs cannot be met with generally available products or services. RFLs are issued to qualify the vendors who are interested in providing services/products for specific requirements. Based on the response to RFI detailed RFP is issued to qualified vendors who the organization believes can provide desired service. Proposals in response to RFPs are seldomless than 10 pages and sometimes 1000 of pages.
Request for Quotation (RFQ)  
Customers issue RFQs when they want to buy large amount of a commodity and prices not the only issue for example, when availability of or delivering of services are considered. RFQs can be very detailed, so proposals written to RFQs can be lengthy but generally much shorter than an RFP proposal.
RFQ proposals consist primarily of cost data with small narratives addressing customer issues, such as quality control.
Invitation for Bid (IFB)
Customer issue (IFB) when they are buying some service such as construction. The requirements are detailed but the primary consideration is price. For example a customer provides architectural blueprints for contractors to bid on. This proposal can be lengthy but most of its stretching legnthing factor comes from cost estimating data and detailed schedules. 
Request for Information
Sometimes before a customer issues a RFI or RFQ or IFB, the customer will issue a Request for Information (RFI). The purpose of the request for information is to gain marketing intelligence” about what products, series and vendors are available, RFIs are used to shape final RFPs, RFQs and IFBs, so potential vendors take great care in responding to these request, hoping to shape the eventual formal solicitation toward their products or services.
2.   Information solicited proposal 
Informally solicited proposals are typically the result of conversation held between a vendor and a prospective customer. The customer is interested enough in a product or service to ask for a proposal. Typically, the customer does not ask for competing proposals from other vendors. This type of proposal is known as sole source proposal. There are no formal requirements to respond to just the information gleaned from customer meetings. There proposals are typically less than 25 pages, with many less than 5 pages.
3.   Unsolicited Proposal: Unsolicited proposals are marketing brochure. They are always generic, with no direct connection between customer needs or specified requirements. Vendors use them to introduce a product or service to a prospective customer. They are often used as “leave behinds” at the end of initial meetings with customers or give aways at trade shows or other public meetings. They are not designed to close a sale.
Components of formally solicited proposal
a.   Requirements material, which matches customer requirements with the paragraph and page numbers of where those requirements are addressed in the proposal.
b.   Executive summary which outlines the primary benefits of the vendor’s solutions to the customer’s requirements.
c.   Technical volume, which demonstrates how each requirement will be met.
d.   Management volume, which describes how the programme will be managed
e.   Cost volume, which provides all costing data, as well as implementation plans and schedules.
a.   A description of the seller’s capabilities or products.
b.   A discussion of key issues
c.   A description of the buyer’s specification and how they will be met
d.   The cost of the offering
e.   Proof of prior experience, that is, testimonials from previous customers, description of previous projects. 
Managing business proposals presents an enormous challenge for sales and marketing teams. Many established management methods are ill-suited to deal with the broader issues associated with the production and delivery of proposal.
The process of proposal management
Proposal management is an inherently collaborative process. It often consists of the following basic roles and responsibilities.
a.   Creator responsible for creating and editing content.
b.   Editor responsible for turning the content message and the style of delivery, including translation and localization.
c.   Publisher: responsible for releasing the content for use.
d.   Administrator: responsible for managing access permissions to documents and their usually accomplished by assigning access rights to user groups or role.
e.   Consumer: or viewer- the person who reads or otherwise takes in content after it is published or shared increasingly. The term proposal management is being used to suggest that engagement with the proposal process is important to more than just the sales team, and should also affect those working in marketing legal sales. There is also an increase trend towards using proposal management soft ware that allow users to quickly and easily create proposals, collaborate with team
members, track and analysis customer engagement.   

Do you have need for a business plan on any business or for bank loan? Call: 08036721009,07088788710 or send e-mail to; on payment of Twenty thousand five hundred naira, into our company's account; thus:

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