Sunday 29 September 2013


According to wiki “An insecticide is a chemical used against insects. They include homicides and parricides used against the eggs and larvae of insects, respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry, and general home use. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind the increase in agricultural productivity in the 20th century.   Nearly all insecticides have the potential to significantly alter ecosystems; many are toxic to humans; and others are concentrated in the food chain.
The classification of insecticides is done in several different ways
  • Systemic insecticides are incorporated by treated plants. Insects ingest the insecticide while feeding on the plants.
  • Contact insecticides are toxic to insects brought into direct contact. Efficacy is often related to the quality of pesticide application, with small droplets (such as aerosols) often improving performance. 
  • Natural insecticides, such as nicotine, pyrethrum, and neem extracts are made by plants as defenses against insects. Nicotine-based insecticides are still being widely used in the US and Canada, however they are barred in the EU
  • Plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs) are insecticidal substances produced by plants after genetic modification.  For instance, a gene that codes for a specific Baccilus thuringiensis biocidal protein is introduced into a crop plant's genetic material. Then, the plant manufactures the protein. Since the biocide is incorporated into the plant, additional applications, at least of the same compound, are not required.
  • Inorganic insecticides are manufactured with metals and include arsenates, copper compounds and fluorine compounds, which are now seldom used, and sulfur, which is commonly used.
  • Organic insecticides are synthetic chemicals that comprise the largest numbers of pesticides available for use today.
  • Mode of action—how the pesticide kills or inactivates a pest—is another way of classifying insecticides. Mode of action is important in predicting whether an insecticide will be toxic to unrelated species, such as fish, birds, and mammals.
Classes of insecticides
The insecticidal properties of the best-known representative of this class of insecticides, DDT, was made by the Swiss Scientist Paul Müller. For this discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1948. DDT was introduced on the market in 1944. The contemporary rise of the chemical industry facilitated the large-scale production of DDT and related chlorinated hydrocarbons. DDT functions by opening the sodium channels in the nerve cells of the insect.
Organophosphates and carbonates
The organophosphates are another large class of synthetic insecticides. These also target the insect's nervous system. Organophosphates interfere with the enzymes acetylcholinesterase and other cholinesterases, disrupting nerve impulses, killing or disabling the insect. Organophosphate insecticides and chemical warfare nerve agents (such as sarin, tabun, soman, and VX) work in the same way. Organophosphates have an accumulative toxic effect to wildlife, so multiple exposures to the chemicals amplifies the toxicity.
Carbonate insecticides have similar toxic mechanisms to organophosphates, but have a much shorter duration of action and are, thus, somewhat less toxic.
In order to mimic the insecticidal activity of the natural compound pyrethrum another class of pesticides, parathyroid pesticides, has been developed. These compounds are nonpersistent sodium channel modulators, and are much less acutely toxic than organophosphates and carbamates. Compounds in this group are often applied against household pests.
Neonicotinoids are synthetic analogues of the natural insecticide nicotine (with a much lower acute mammalian toxicity and greater field persistence). These chemicals are nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Broad-spectrum—systemic insecticides, they have a rapid action (minutes-hours). They are applied as sprays, drenches, seed, and soil treatments—often as substitutes for organophosphates and carbamates. Treated insects exhibit leg tremors, rapid wing motion, stylet withdrawal (aphids), disoriented movement, paralysis, and death.  Imidacloprid may be the most commonly used neonicotinoid. It has recently come under scrutiny for its deleterious effects on honeybees,  and its potential to increase the susceptibility of rice to plant hopper attacks.
Reynolds are synthetic analogues with the same mode of action as ryanodine, a naturally occurring insecticide extracted from Ryania speciosa (Flacourtiaceae). They bind to calcium channels in cardiac and skeletal muscle, blocking nervous transmission. Only one such insecticide is currently registered, Rynaxypyr, generic name chlorantraniliprole.
Insect growth regulators
Insect growth regulator (IGR) is a term coined to include insect hormone mimics and an earlier class of chemicals, the benzoylphenyl ureas, which inhibit chitin (exoskeleton) biosynthesis in insects. Diflubenzuron is a member of the latter class, used primarily to control caterpillars that are pests. The most successful insecticides in this class are the juvenoids (juvenile hormone analogues). Of these, methoprene is most widely used. It has no observable acute toxicity in rats, and is approved by WHO for use in drinking water cisterns to combat malaria. Most of its uses are to combat insects where the adult is the pest, including mosquitoes, several fly species, and fleas. Two very similar products, hydroprene and kinoprene, are used for controlling species such as cockroaches and white flies. Methoprene has been registered with the EPA since 1975, and there are virtually no reports of resistance. A more recent type of IGR is the ecdysone agonist tebufenozide (MIMIC), which is used in forestry and other applications for control of caterpillars, which are far more sensitive to its hormonal effects than other insect orders.
Biological insecticides
Many plants exude substances to prevent insects from eating. Premier examples are substances activated by the enzyme myrosinase. This enzyme converts glucosinolates to a variety of compounds that are toxic to herbivorous insects. One product of this enzyme is ally is othiocyanate, the pungent ingredient in horseradish sauces.
Biosynthesis of antifeedants by the action of myrosinase.
The myrosinase is released only upon crushing the flesh of horseradish by the herbivore (or preparer of horseradish sauce). Since allyl isothiocyanate is harmful to the plant as well as the insect, it is stored in the harmless form of the glucosinolate, separate from the myrosinase enzyme
In general, tree rosin is considered a natural insecticide. To be specific, the production of oleoresin by conifer species is a component of the defense response against insect attack and fungal pathogen infection.
Bacterial insecticides
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterial disease that affects Lepidopterans and some other insects. Toxins produced by different strains of this bacterium are used as a larvicide against caterpillars, beetles, and mosquitoes. Toxins from Saccharopolyspora spinosa are isolated from fermentations and sold as Spinosad. Because these toxins have little effect on other organisms, they are considered more environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides. The toxin from B. thuringiensis (Bt toxin) has been incorporated directly into plants through the use of genetic engineering. Other biological insecticides include products based on entomopathogenic fungi (e.g., Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae), nematodes (e.g., Steinernema feltiae) and viruses (e.g., Cydia pomonella granulovirus).
Environmental effects
Effects on nontarget species
Some insecticides kill or harm other creatures in addition to those they are intended to kill. For example, birds may be poisoned when they eat food that was recently sprayed with insecticides or when they mistake an insecticide granule on the ground for food and eat it.
Sprayed insecticides may drift from the area to which it is applied and into wildlife areas, especially when it is sprayed aerially.
Main article: DDT
The development of insecticides such as DDT has been motivated by desire to replace more dangerous or less effective alternatives. DDT was introduced to replace lead and arsenic-based compounds, which were in widespread use in the early 1940 .
Some insecticides have been banned due to the fact that they are persistent toxins that have adverse effects on animals and/or humans. An oft-quoted case is that of DDT, an example of a widely used (and maybe misused) pesticide, which was brought to public attention by Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring. One of the better-known impacts of DDT is to reduce the thickness of the egg shells on predatory birds. The shells sometimes become too thin to be viable, causing reductions in bird populations. This occurs with DDT and a number of related compounds due to the process of bioaccumulation, wherein the chemical, due to its stability and fat solubility, accumulates in organisms' fatty tissues. Also, DDT may biomagnifying, which causes progressively higher concentrations in the body fat of animals farther up the food chain. The near-worldwide ban on agricultural use of DDT and related chemicals has allowed some of these birds, such as the peregrine falcon, to recover in recent years. A number of the organochlorine pesticides have been banned from most uses worldwide, and globally they are controlled via the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. These include: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex, and toxaphene.
Pollinator decline
Insecticides can kill bees and may be a cause of pollinator decline, the loss of bees that pollinate plants, and colony collapse disorder (CCD),  in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. Loss of pollinators will mean a reduction in crop yields. Sublethal doses of insecticides (i.e. imidacloprid and other neonicotinoids) affect foraging behavior of bees.  However, research into the causes of CCD was inconclusive as of June 2007”.
Common characteristics for both disinfectants and household insecticides are that they represent a variety of applications and possible uses by consumers, industries and institutions such as hospitals and restaurants. Their ultimate goal is to protect man by providing hygiene, protecting public health or by contributing to more comfort for the consumer.

3.1 Disinfectants
Disinfectants are mainly used to kill germs (bacteria, viruses, etc) in a wide range of applications domestically,but also in the food processing industry and in institutions such as hospitals, amongst others.They, in fact, are essential to ensure optimal conditions of hygiene. There is first of all the most well known category of household disinfectants,
used by every household to ensure cleanliness and hygiene at home. Another important product category is the one used by institutions such as hotels, public buildings, offices, restaurants etc. In these areas,disinfectants are used for similar purposes as in the home. Because of the greater number of people involved, the need to maintain hygiene there is greater. Especially, in locations where food is prepared such as hotels and restaurants or in catering operations, disinfectants are considered to be essential products to maintain high standards of hygiene and
consequently to protect ultimately the
end user or consumer.
A third category of disinfectants which are essential to guarantee public health are the disinfectants used in the medical area such as in hospitals, private medical practice, etc. They are mainly used by professionals(medical
profession) and also cover very specialist applications such as for the disinfection of medical devices and of surgical linen. A fourth category is used in the food and beverage industry, where disinfectants are essential to avoid food contamination or food poisoning. A fifth category is used in the veterinary area to help improve the living and health conditions of animals. Udder washes and teat dips are for example used to prevent infection of milk.

3.2 Insecticides, acaricides and insect repellents These kinds of biocides are used to protect man and animals against harmful and nuisance insects and to protect certain goods such as food, fabrics and furnishings from the damage that insects can cause. Nuisance insects include flying and crawling insects, like flies, bluebottles,
moths, wasps, mosquitoes, mites, cock roaches, ants, spiders fleas, ticks, woodworms and termites. One of the subcategories, which is in the scope of A.I.S.E., is used domestically in a variety of applications. Household insecticides are generally sold as ready-to-use products, which are safe to use by consumers. All these products can be applied indoor as well as outdoor.

It follows clearly from the different fields of applications described above that biocidal products bring added value to man and his environment.

4.1 Benefits of disinfectants
The use of disinfectants began in the medical area and has brought huge benefits to patients since the early days. Meanwhile the medical care sector has seen an extension of applications and so has the numberofpeople vulnerable to infection in this area. The various applications of disinfectants in the medical and people's care institutes provides direct protection against infection risk for both patients (e.g. instruments) and medical staff (e.g. infections body fluids). Moreover they play an essential role in the reduction of the growing cross-contamination risks between patients/medical staff/visitors. The food and beverage industry, which is another important user of disinfectants, has changed significantly in recent years both in the type of
(ready) food and the amounts manufactu red. EU regulations such as EU Council Directive 93/43 require standardised and well documented cleaning anddisinfection procedures for the hygienic production of foods. Incidents with e.g. salmonella in eggs and poultry, listeria in dairy products illustrate the necessity to maintain the highest hygiene conditions in the handling of food and their subsequent processing to
avoid food borne diseases and food spoilage. In this industry the cleaning and disinfection operations are carried out by skilled professional operators in both "closed" and "open" systems. It is clear that similar cleaning
and disinfection action needs to be taken in the catering sector including food outlets working according to the traditional method. Here, more direct contact occurs between people and food demanding special attention for personal hygiene (hand disinfection) and disinfection of surfaces (chopping boards, etc.), utensils (grinders, etc.), sinks and drains and toilets to avoid cross-contamination. This also applies to professional kitchens in hospitals or elderly homes where the presence of immuno-depressed people makes the need to control cross-contamination even more relevant. Also in the domestic situation disinfectants help to improve the well being and health of people in line with the benefits described above. To have a similar effect disinfectants fordomestic use need not to be as powerful as for professional use and differ e.g. in type and concentration. Because these
products are used by households, manufacturers pay special attention to formulate products which perform well without representing risks for the consumers. Much attention is given to provide appropriate usage instructions. Accidents with disinfectants are rare. When they happen, the type of risk generated is low and comparable to other household products used in and around the house. Disinfectants used in the veterinary areaare essential for both animal welfare and public health. Diseases such as foot and mouth, swine vesicular disease or fowl pest occur on cattle farms and because of their extremely contagious character they are to benotified. In order to prevent such diseases from occurring (or spreading) disinfection of stables, stores of animal feed, transport vehicles, etc. plays an essential role.

4.2 Benefits of insecticides, acaricides and insect repellents
Compared with plant protection pesticides, the insecticides used for domestic purposes will be different, not only by formulation, concentration of active substances and method of use, but also in form/packaging. Last but not least their product formulation is made taking into account the impact on the environment. Although potential use is broad, actualuse is primarily limited by seasonal factors (summer months). Because of the nature of the products, consumers limit their use, and frequency of use is generally related to occurrence of
particular insects problems. The quality of the environment in which people work, live or play, the health of individuals, the quality of certain goods such as food products can all be affected by insects of different kinds.
Examples, in Europe, of health-threatening situations involving insects include entomophobia, arthropod bites and stings (and allergic reactions to these), diseases and allergies transmitted by cockroaches, ants, ticks and fleas, and diseases spread by flies and other insects by contamination of foodstuffs. In the past, certain chronic illnesses linked to the diffusion of protozoa through mosquitoes, such as malaria have been controlled by the use of insecticides.

 Disinfectant is an agent, which destroys pathogenic organisms.   A good disinfectant should also be a deodorant possessing good shelf qualities and it should be effective against a host of microorganisms.  
Production process
The manufacture of black fluid disinfectants involves saponification of fatty oils.  Soft soap is prepared by adding a boiling solution of caustic soda (33 %) to a mixture of fatty oils and molten rosin.  The soft soap thus obtained is dissolved in hot water and the creosote and cresol are added. The fluid thus obtained is dark brown or black in color.  To manufacture white fluid disinfectants, casein is dissolved in water and a homogenous solution is made. Borax is added to this casein solution and stirred properly, which is then filtered and the requisite amounts of HBTA and cresol and creosote are added.  Subsequently, homogenization is done in shearing colloid mill.  
 Market Analysis
The product has a good market both in rural and urban areas.  Thanks to the growing awareness, the people are using disinfectants as a preventive measure. Supply to Hotels, Restaurants, Public and Private Offices, Supermarket Chains, Stores, etc would help in capturing a portion of the market. However, this Industry is not yet developed in Nigeria
 Equipment and Raw materials
The Equipment used in the production process will mainly be fabricated from within  Nigeria.  While raw materials may be imported from China and India by big traders from whom Nigeria manufacturers will buy in smaller quantity.
High boiling tar acid, Cresol, Creosote casein, Borax, Sodium, ww.Rosin, Castor oil, Soya bean oil, Caustic soda,
Government Incentives:
The Government of Nigeria has promoted the growth of the Health sector through tax exemptions on Health promoting Industry in a bid to promote good Health of the People.

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